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Highlights of the Mueller report of March 2019

Introduction: Topics as well as Place names and Personal names in the transcript are highlighted and shown in the context of the statements in which they appear. Click on the preceding every statement to go to the pertinent paragraph of the transcript in a pop-up window.

on advertisements, : According to Facebook, the IRA purchased over 3,500 advertisements, and the expenditures totaled approximately $100,000.

on advertisements : As early as March 2016, the IRA purchased advertisements that overtly opposed the Clinton Campaign.

on anti-Clinton content : First, on multiple occasions, members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign promoted — typically by linking, retweeting, or similar methods of reposting — pro-Trump or anti-Clinton content published by the IRA through IRA-controlled social media accounts.

on Bannon. : In early December, a business associate steered Dmitriev to Erik Prince, a supporter of the Trump Campaign and an associate of senior Trump advisor Steve Bannon.

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on bot network : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on Burchik. : Two individuals headed the IRA’s management: its general director, Mikhail Bystrov, and its executive director, Mikhail Burchik.

on Bystrov, : Two individuals headed the IRA’s management: its general director, Mikhail Bystrov, and its executive director, Mikhail Burchik.

on Clinton, : The campaign evolved from a generalized program designed in 2014 and 2015 to undermine the U.S. electoral system, to a targeted operation that by early 2016 favored candidate Trump and disparaged candidate Clinton, The IRA’s operation also included the purchase of political advertisements on social media in the names of U.S. persons and entities, as well as the staging of political rallies inside the United States.

on Clinton-related emails. : Section III of this Report details the Office’s investigation into the Russian hacking operations, as well as other efforts by Trump Campaign supporters to obtain Clinton-related emails.

on Clinton. : Papadopoulos had suggested to a representative of that foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Clinton. : First, a Russian entity carried out a social media campaign that favored presidential candidate Donald J. Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Clinton. : Beginning in June 2016, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ forecast to senior Campaign officials that WikiLeaks would release information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on Clinton. : The presidential campaign of Donald J. Trump (“Trump Campaign” or “Campaign") showed interest in WikiLeaks’s releases of documents and welcomed their potential to damage candidate Clinton.

on Clinton. : One week later, in the first week of May 2016, Papadopoulos suggested to a representative of a foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on Clinton. : By early to mid-2016, IRA operations included supporting the Trump Campaign and disparaging candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Clinton. : By February 2016, internal IRA documents referred to support for the Trump Campaign and opposition to candidate Clinton. 49

on Clinton. : author criticized the "lower number of posts dedicated to criticizing Hillary Clinton" and reminded the Facebook specialist "it is imperative to intensify criticizing Hillary Clinton." 51

on Clinton : Around the same time, candidate Trump announced that he hoped Russia would recover emails described as missing from a private server used by Clinton when she was Secretary of State (he later said that he was speaking sarcastically). ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ WikiLeaks began releasing Podesta’s stolen emails on October 7, 2016, less than one hour after a U.S. media outlet released video considered damaging to candidate Trump.

on Clinton : Immediately upon his return to London from that trip, Mifsud told Papadopoulos that the Russian government had “dirt” on Hillary Clinton in the form of thousands

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on Clinton : George Papadopoulos, a foreign policy advisor during the campaign period, pleaded guilty to lying to investigators about, inter alia, the nature and timing of his interactions with Joseph Mifsud, the professor who told Papadopoulos that the Russians had dirt on candidate Clinton in the form of thousands of emails.

on Clinton : For example, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ directions to IRA operators ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ “Main idea: Use any opportunity to criticize Hillary [ Clinton ] and the rest (except Sanders and Trump - we support them)."

on Clinton : author criticized the "lower number of posts dedicated to criticizing Hillary Clinton" and reminded the Facebook specialist "it is imperative to intensify criticizing Hillary Clinton." 51

on Clinton : For example, on March 18, 2016, the IRA purchased an advertisement depicting candidate Clinton and a caption that read in part, “If one day God lets this liar enter the White House as a president — that day would be a real national tragedy.

on Clinton : IRA-purchased advertisements featuring Clinton were, with very few exceptions, negative.

on Clinton : These posts included allegations of voter fraud, as well as allegations that Secretary Clinton had mishandled classified information.

on ClintonForPrison2016 : Similarly, on April 6, 2016, the IRA purchased advertisements for its account “Black Matters.” calling for a “flashmob” of U.S. persons to “take a photo with #Hillary ClintonForPrison2016 or #nohillary2016."

on Clinton Campaign. : At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign.

on Clinton Campaign. : On July 22, 2016, WikiLeaks posted thousands of internal DNC documents revealing information about the Clinton Campaign.

on Clinton Campaign. : Throughout 2016, IRA accounts published an increasing number of materials supporting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on Clinton Campaign. : As early as March 2016, the IRA purchased advertisements that overtly opposed the Clinton Campaign.

on Clinton Campaign. : From June 2016 until the end of the presidential campaign, almost all of the U.S. rallies organized by the IRA focused on the U.S. election, often promoting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on Clinton Campaign. : The investigation identified two different forms of connections between the IRA and members of the Trump Campaign. (The investigation identified no similar connections between the IRA and the Clinton Campaign. )

on Clinton Campaign : Second, a Russian intelligence service conducted computer-intrusion operations against entities, employees, and volunteers working on the Clinton Campaign and then released stolen documents.

on Clinton Campaign : Separately, Russian intelligence officers who carried out the hacking into Democratic Party computers and the personal email accounts of individuals affiliated with the Clinton Campaign conspired to violate, among other federal laws, the federal computer-intrusion statute, and they have been so charged. See United States v. Netyksho, et al., No. 18-cr-215 (D.D.C.).

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on Clinton Campaign volunteers : In March 2016, the GRU began hacking the email accounts of Clinton Campaign volunteers and employees, including campaign chairman John Podesta.

on Clinton’s. : National Security Agency — that concluded with high confidence that Russia had intervened in the election through a variety of means to assist Trump’s candidacy and harm Clinton’s.

on Cohen : The Trump Organization pursued the project through at least June 2016, including by considering travel to Russia by Cohen and candidate Trump.

on Cohen : Former Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to making false statements to Congress about the Trump Moscow project.

on Comey : The investigation continued under then-Director Comey for the next seven weeks until May 9, 2017, when President Trump fired Comey as FBI Director — an action which is analyzed in Volume II of the report.

on Concord. : Prigozhin is a wealthy Russian businessman who served as the head of Concord.

on Conway, : Trump, Kellyanne Conway, Brad Parscale, and Michael T. Flynn.

on DNC. : July 2016 was also the month WikiLeaks first released emails stolen by the GRU from the DNC.

on DNC. : Within days, there was public reporting that U.S. intelligence agencies had “high confidence” that the Russian government was behind the theft of emails and documents from the DNC.

on DNC : Around the time that the DNC announced in mid-June 2016 the Russian government’s role in hacking its network, the GRU began disseminating stolen materials through the fictitious online personas “DCLeaks” and “Guccifer 2.0.”

on DNC : In April 2016, the GRU hacked into the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee ( DNC ).

on DNC : Days after the June 9 meeting, on June 14, 2016, a cybersecurity firm and the DNC announced that Russian government hackers had infiltrated the DNC and obtained access to opposition research on candidate Trump, among other documents.

on DNC : Days after the June 9 meeting, on June 14, 2016, a cybersecurity firm and the DNC announced that Russian government hackers had infiltrated the DNC and obtained access to opposition research on candidate Trump, among other documents.

on DNC : On July 22, 2016, WikiLeaks posted thousands of internal DNC documents revealing information about the Clinton Campaign.

on Facebook, : According to Facebook, the IRA purchased over 3,500 advertisements, and the expenditures totaled approximately $100,000.

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on Facebook, : According to Facebook, in total the IRA-controlled accounts made over 80,000 posts before their deactivation in August 2017, and these posts reached at least 29 million U.S persons and “may have reached an estimated 126 million people.

on Facebook, : IRA employees frequently used ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to contact and recruit U.S. persons who followed the group.

on Facebook : Multiple IRA-controlled Facebook groups and

on Facebook : Many IRA operations used Facebook accounts created and operated by its specialists.

on Facebook : To reach larger U.S. audiences, the IRA purchased advertisements from Facebook that promoted the IRA groups on the newsfeeds of U.S. audience members.

on Facebook : For example, at the time they were deactivated by Facebook in mid-2017, the IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group had over 300,000 followers, the “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group had over 250,000 followers, the “Being Patriotic” Facebook group had over 200,000 followers, and the “Secured Borders” Facebook group had over 130,000 followers.

on Facebook account, : The IRA employee included a screenshot of candidate Trump’s Facebook account, which included a post about the August 20, 2016 political rallies organized by the IRA.

on Facebook account : For example, on August 23, 2016, the IRA-controlled persona “Matt Skiber” Facebook account sent a message to a U.S. Tea Party activist, writing that “Mr. Trump posted about our event in Miami! This is great!"

on Facebook accounts : In November 2017, a Facebook representative testified that Facebook had identified 470 IRA-controlled Facebook accounts that collectively made 80,000 posts between January 2015 and August 2017.

on Facebook group : In ■■■■■■■■■ 2016 internal ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ reviewing the IRA-controlled Facebook group “Secured Borders,” the

on Facebook groups : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ IRA Facebook groups active during the 2016 campaign covered a range of political issues and included purported conservative

on Facebook groups : For example, on May 31, 2016, the operational account “Matt Skiber” began to privately message dozens of pro-Trump Facebook groups asking them to help plan a “pro-Trump rally near Trump Tower."

on Facebook groups : In subsequent months, the IRA purchased dozens of advertisements supporting the Trump Campaign, predominantly through the Facebook groups “Being Patriotic,” “Stop All Invaders,” and “Secured Borders.”

on Facebook groups : First, the IRA used one of its preexisting social media personas ( Facebook groups and Twitter accounts, for example) to announce and promote the event.

on FBI : The FBI and other U.S. government institutions were at the time continuing their investigation of suspected Russian government efforts to interfere in the presidential election.

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on Flynn, : from a bank whose CEO was then seeking a position in the Trump Administration); allegations that Papadopoulos committed a crime or crimes by acting as an unregistered agent of the Israeli government; and four sets of allegations involving Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor to President Trump.

on Flynn. : Trump, Kellyanne Conway, Brad Parscale, and Michael T. Flynn.

on GRU : The Russian intelligence service known as the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Army ( GRU ) carried out these operations.

on GRU : Around the time that the DNC announced in mid-June 2016 the Russian government’s role in hacking its network, the GRU began disseminating stolen materials through the fictitious online personas “DCLeaks” and “Guccifer 2.0.”

on GRU : In April 2016, the GRU hacked into the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee ( DNC ).

on GRU : In March 2016, the GRU began hacking the email accounts of Clinton Campaign volunteers and employees, including campaign chairman John Podesta.

on GRU : The GRU later released additional materials through the organization WikiLeaks.

on GRU : The GRU stole hundreds of thousands of documents from the compromised email accounts and networks.

on GRU : RUSSIAN CONTACTS WITH THE CAMPAIGN The social media campaign and the GRU hacking operations coincided with a series of contacts between Trump Campaign officials and individuals with ties to the Russian government.

on GRU : July 2016 was also the month WikiLeaks first released emails stolen by the GRU from the DNC.

on GRU : Less than an hour later, WikiLeaks made its second release: thousands of John Podesta’s emails that had been stolen by the GRU in late March 2016.

on Instagram : IRA employees frequently used ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to contact and recruit U.S. persons who followed the group.

on Instagram account : The IRA bought an advertisement for its Instagram account “Tea Party News” asking U.S. persons to help them “make a patriotic team of young Trump supporters” by uploading photos with the hashtag “#KIDS4TRUMP.”

on Internet Research Agency, LLC : The first form of Russian election influence came principally from the Internet Research Agency, LLC ( IRA ), a Russian organization funded by Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and companies he controlled, including Concord Management and Consulting LLC and Concord Catering (collectively “Concord”).

on Internet Research Agency : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO VOLUME I RUSSIAN SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN The Internet Research Agency ( IRA ) carried out the earliest Russian interference operations identified by the investigation — a social media campaign designed to provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States.

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on IRA, : In sum, the investigation established that Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election through the “active measures” social media campaign carried out by the IRA, an organization funded by Prigozhin and companies that he controlled.

on IRA-controlled : Multiple IRA-controlled Facebook groups and

on IRA-controlled account. : In January 2018, Twitter announced that it had identified 3,814 IRA-controlled Twitter accounts and notified approximately 1.4 million people Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on IRA-controlled account. : Twitter also announced that it had notified approximately 1.4 million people who Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on IRA-controlled account : On September 19, 2017, President Trump’s personal account @realDonaldTrump responded to a tweet from the IRA-controlled account @10 gop (the backup account of @TEN GOP, which had already been deactivated by Twitter).

on IRA-controlled accounts. : profile U.S. persons, including former Ambassador Michael McFaul, Roger Stone, Sean Hannity, and Michael Flynn Jr., retweeted or responded to tweets posted to these IRA-controlled accounts.

on IRA-controlled accounts : According to Facebook, in total the IRA-controlled accounts made over 80,000 posts before their deactivation in August 2017, and these posts reached at least 29 million U.S persons and “may have reached an estimated 126 million people.

on IRA-controlled accounts : Multiple IRA-posted tweets gained popularity. U.S. media outlets also quoted tweets from IRA-controlled accounts and attributed them to the reactions of real U.S. persons.

on IRA-controlled persona : For example, on August 23, 2016, the IRA-controlled persona “Matt Skiber” Facebook account sent a message to a U.S. Tea Party activist, writing that “Mr. Trump posted about our event in Miami! This is great!"

on IRA-controlled social media accounts. : First, on multiple occasions, members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign promoted — typically by linking, retweeting, or similar methods of reposting — pro-Trump or anti-Clinton content published by the IRA through IRA-controlled social media accounts.

on IRA-Controlled Social Media Accounts : 2. U.S. Operations Through IRA-Controlled Social Media Accounts Dozens of IRA employees were responsible for operating accounts and personas on different U.S. social media platforms.

on IRA-created content. : IRA-controlled Twitter accounts separately had tens of thousands of followers, including multiple U.S. political figures who retweeted IRA-created content.

on IRA-generated content, : The IRA also recruited moderators of conservative social media groups to promote IRA-generated content, as well as recruited individuals to perform political acts (such as walking around New York City dressed up as Santa Claus with a Trump mask).

on IRA-organized political rallies : Additionally, in a few instances, IRA employees represented themselves as U.S. persons to communicate with members of the Trump Campaign in an effort to seek assistance and coordination on IRA-organized political rallies inside the United States.

on IRA-organized rallies : In May 2016, the IRA created the Twitter account @march for trump, which promoted IRA-organized rallies in support of the Trump Campaign (described below).

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on IRA-organized rallies : Starting in June 2016, the IRA contacted different U.S. persons affiliated with the Trump Campaign in an effort to coordinate pro-Trump IRA-organized rallies inside the United States.

on IRA-posted tweets : Multiple IRA-posted tweets gained popularity. U.S. media outlets also quoted tweets from IRA-controlled accounts and attributed them to the reactions of real U.S. persons.

on IRA-purchased : During the U.S. presidential campaign, many IRA-purchased advertisements explicitly supported or opposed a presidential candidate or promoted U.S. rallies organized by the IRA (discussed below).

on IRA-purchasedadvertisements : IRA-purchasedadvertisements referencing candidate Trump largely supported his campaign.

on IRA-purchased advertisements : IRA-purchased advertisements featuring Clinton were, with very few exceptions, negative.

on IRA. : The investigation did not identify evidence that any U.S. persons conspired or coordinated with the IRA.

on IRA. : B. Funding and Oversight from Concord and Prigozhin Until at least February 2018, Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and two Concord companies funded the IRA.

on IRA. : In January 2018, Twitter publicly identified 3,814 Twitter accounts associated with the IRA.

on IRA. : The Office identified dozens of U.S. rallies organized by the IRA.

on IRA. : Initially, recruitment focused on U.S. persons who could amplify the content posted by the IRA.

on IRA. : In total, Trump Campaign affiliates promoted dozens of tweets, posts, and other political content created by the IRA.

on IRA : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO VOLUME I RUSSIAN SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN The Internet Research Agency ( IRA ) carried out the earliest Russian interference operations identified by the investigation — a social media campaign designed to provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States.

on IRA : The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Yevgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled.

on IRA : In mid-2014, the IRA sent employees to the United States on an intelligence-gathering mission with instructions ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■

on IRA : The IRA later used social media accounts and interest groups to sow discord in the U.S. political system through what it termed “information warfare.”

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on IRA : The IRA conducted social media operations targeted at large U.S. audiences with the goal of sowing discord in the U.S. political system.

on IRA : The first form of Russian election influence came principally from the Internet Research Agency, LLC ( IRA ), a Russian organization funded by Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and companies he controlled, including Concord Management and Consulting LLC and Concord Catering (collectively “Concord”).

on IRA : The IRA and its employees began operations targeting the United States as early as 2014.

on IRA : The IRA made various expenditures to carry out those activities, including buying political advertisements on social media in the names of U.S. persons and entities.

on IRA : By the end of the 2016 U.S. election, the IRA had the ability to reach millions of U.S. persons through their social media accounts.

on IRA : Facebook estimated the IRA reached as many as 126 million persons through its Facebook accounts.

on IRA : As early as the spring of 2014, the IRA began to hide its funding and activities.

on IRA : IRA subdivided the Translator Department into different responsibilities, ranging from operations on different social media platforms to analytics to

on IRA : By the spring of 2014, the IRA began to consolidate U.S. operations within a single general department, known internally as the “Translator” (переводчик) department.

on IRA : C. The IRA Targets U.S. Elections 1. The IRA Ramps Up U.S. Operations As Early As 2014 The IRA’s U.S. operations sought to influence public opinion through online media and forums.

on IRA : C. The IRA Targets U.S. Elections 1. The IRA Ramps Up U.S. Operations As Early As 2014 The IRA’s U.S. operations sought to influence public opinion through online media and forums.

on IRA : The IRA later added specialists who operated on Tumblr and Instagram accounts.

on IRA : The IRA referred to employees assigned to operate the social media accounts as “specialists.”

on IRA : By early 2015, the IRA began to create larger social media groups or public social media pages that claimed (falsely) to be affiliated with U.S. political and grassroots organizations.

on IRA : In certain cases, the IRA created accounts that mimicked real U.S. organizations.

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on IRA : Initially, the IRA created social media accounts that pretended to be the personal accounts of U.S. persons.

on IRA : More commonly, the IRA created accounts in the names of fictitious U.S. organizations and grassroots groups and used these accounts to pose as anti-immigration groups, Tea Party activists, Black Lives Matter protestors, and other U.S. social and political activists.

on IRA : The IRA closely monitored the activity of its social media accounts.

on IRA : Throughout 2016, IRA accounts published an increasing number of materials supporting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on IRA : According to Facebook, the IRA purchased over 3,500 advertisements, and the expenditures totaled approximately $100,000.

on IRA : To reach larger U.S. audiences, the IRA purchased advertisements from Facebook that promoted the IRA groups on the newsfeeds of U.S. audience members.

on IRA : As early as March 2016, the IRA purchased advertisements that overtly opposed the Clinton Campaign.

on IRA : During the U.S. presidential campaign, many IRA-purchased advertisements explicitly supported or opposed a presidential candidate or promoted U.S. rallies organized by the IRA (discussed below).

on IRA : For example, on March 18, 2016, the IRA purchased an advertisement depicting candidate Clinton and a caption that read in part, “If one day God lets this liar enter the White House as a president — that day would be a real national tragedy.

on IRA : Similarly, on April 6, 2016, the IRA purchased advertisements for its account “Black Matters.” calling for a “flashmob” of U.S. persons to “take a photo with #Hillary ClintonForPrison2016 or #nohillary2016."

on IRA : In subsequent months, the IRA purchased dozens of advertisements supporting the Trump Campaign, predominantly through the Facebook groups “Being Patriotic,” “Stop All Invaders,” and “Secured Borders.”

on IRA : The IRA bought an advertisement for its Instagram account “Tea Party News” asking U.S. persons to help them “make a patriotic team of young Trump supporters” by uploading photos with the hashtag “#KIDS4TRUMP.”

on IRA : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on IRA : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on IRA : In May 2016, the IRA created the Twitter account @march for trump, which promoted IRA-organized rallies in support of the Trump Campaign (described below).

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on IRA : The IRA used many of these accounts to attempt to influence U.S. audiences on the election.

on IRA : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ The IRA operated individualized Twitter accounts similar to the operation of its Facebook accounts, by continuously posting original content to the accounts while also communicating with U.S. Twitter users directly (through public tweeting or Twitter’s private messaging ).

on IRA : Using these accounts and others, the IRA provoked reactions from users and the media.

on IRA : After the event, the IRA posted videos and photographs of the event to the IRA’s social media accounts.

on IRA : First, the IRA used one of its preexisting social media personas ( Facebook groups and Twitter accounts, for example) to announce and promote the event.

on IRA : From those who responded with interest in attending, the IRA then sought a U.S. person to serve as the event’s coordinator.

on IRA : The IRA organized and promoted political rallies inside the United States while posing as U.S. grassroots activists.

on IRA : The IRA then further promoted the event by contacting U.S. media about the event and directing them to speak with the coordinator.

on IRA : The IRA then sent a large number of direct messages to followers of its social media account asking them to attend the event.

on IRA : The IRA continued to organize rallies even after the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

on IRA : From June 2016 until the end of the presidential campaign, almost all of the U.S. rallies organized by the IRA focused on the U.S. election, often promoting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on IRA : As early as 2014, the IRA instructed its employees to target U.S. persons who could be used to advance its operational goals.

on IRA : For example, the IRA targeted the family of ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ and a number of black social justice activists

on IRA : The IRA recruited U.S. persons from across the political spectrum.

on IRA : The IRA also recruited moderators of conservative social media groups to promote IRA-generated content, as well as recruited individuals to perform political acts (such as walking around New York City dressed up as Santa Claus with a Trump mask).

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on IRA : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ as the IRA’s online audience became larger, the IRA tracked U.S. persons with whom they communicated and had successfully tasked (with tasks ranging from organizing rallies to taking pictures with certain political messages).

on IRA : First, on multiple occasions, members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign promoted — typically by linking, retweeting, or similar methods of reposting — pro-Trump or anti-Clinton content published by the IRA through IRA-controlled social media accounts.

on IRA : The investigation identified two different forms of connections between the IRA and members of the Trump Campaign. (The investigation identified no similar connections between the IRA and the Clinton Campaign. )

on IRA : The investigation identified two different forms of connections between the IRA and members of the Trump Campaign. (The investigation identified no similar connections between the IRA and the Clinton Campaign. )

on IRA : Among the U.S. “leaders of public opinion” targeted by the IRA were various members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign.

on IRA : In all cases, the IRA contacted the Campaign while claiming to be U.S. political activists working on behalf of a conservative grassroots organization.

on IRA : Starting in June 2016, the IRA contacted different U.S. persons affiliated with the Trump Campaign in an effort to coordinate pro-Trump IRA-organized rallies inside the United States.

on IRA account operator : In most cases, the IRA account operator would tell the U.S. person that they personally could not attend the event due to some preexisting conflict or because they were somewhere else in the United States.

on IRA advertisement : The first known IRA advertisement explicitly endorsing the Trump Campaign was purchased on April 19, 2016.

on IRA Botnet : b. IRA Botnet Activities

on IRA documents : By February 2016, internal IRA documents referred to support for the Trump Campaign and opposition to candidate Clinton. 49

on IRA employee : The IRA employee included a screenshot of candidate Trump’s Facebook account, which included a post about the August 20, 2016 political rallies organized by the IRA.

on IRA employees, : Some IRA employees, posing as U.S. persons and without revealing their Russian association, communicated electronically with individuals associated with the Trump Campaign and with other political activists to seek to coordinate political activities, including the staging of political rallies.

on IRA employees, : IRA employees were aware that Prigozhin was involved in the IRA’s U.S. operations, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ In May 2016, IRA employees, claiming to be U.S. social activists and administrators of Facebook groups, recruited U.S. persons to hold signs (including one in front of the White House) that read “Happy 55th Birthday Dear Boss,” as an homage to Prigozhin (whose 55th birthday was on June 1, 2016).

on IRA employees : To organize those rallies, IRA employees posed as U.S. grassroots entities and persons and made contact with Trump supporters and Trump Campaign officials in the United States.

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on IRA employees : IRA employees travelled to the United States in mid-2014 on an intelligence-gathering mission to obtain information and photographs for use in their social media posts.

on IRA employees : Using fictitious U.S. personas, IRA employees operated social media accounts and group pages designed to attract U.S. audiences.

on IRA employees : IRA employees posted derogatory information about a number of candidates in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

on IRA employees : IRA employees were aware that Prigozhin was involved in the IRA’s U.S. operations, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ In May 2016, IRA employees, claiming to be U.S. social activists and administrators of Facebook groups, recruited U.S. persons to hold signs (including one in front of the White House) that read “Happy 55th Birthday Dear Boss,” as an homage to Prigozhin (whose 55th birthday was on June 1, 2016).

on IRA employees : IRA employees also traveled to the United States on intelligence-gathering missions.

on IRA employees : In June 2014, four IRA employees applied to the U.S. Department of State to enter the United States, while lying about the purpose of their trip and claiming to be four friends who had met at a party.

on IRA employees : Ultimately, two IRA employees — Anna Bogacheva and Aleksandra Krylova — received visas and entered the United States on June 4, 2014.

on IRA employees : 2. U.S. Operations Through IRA-Controlled Social Media Accounts Dozens of IRA employees were responsible for operating accounts and personas on different U.S. social media platforms.

on IRA employees : IRA employees also acknowledged that their work focused on influencing the U.S. presidential election.

on IRA employees : A number of IRA employees assigned to the Translator Department served as Twitter specialists.

on IRA employees : Many of the same IRA employees who oversaw the IRA’S social media accounts also conducted the day-to-day recruiting for political rallies inside the United States.

on IRA employees : IRA employees frequently used ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to contact and recruit U.S. persons who followed the group.

on IRA employees : Additionally, in a few instances, IRA employees represented themselves as U.S. persons to communicate with members of the Trump Campaign in an effort to seek assistance and coordination on IRA-organized political rallies inside the United States.

on IRA employees : IRA employees monitored the reaction of the Trump Campaign and, later, Trump Administration officials to their tweets.

on IRA employees : As explained further in Volume I, Section V.A, infra, the Office concluded (and a grand jury has alleged) that Prigozhin, his companies, and IRA employees violated U.S. law through these operations, principally by undermining through deceptive acts the work of federal agencies charged with regulating foreign influence in U.S. elections.

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on IRA groups : To reach larger U.S. audiences, the IRA purchased advertisements from Facebook that promoted the IRA groups on the newsfeeds of U.S. audience members.

on IRA operation : At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign.

on IRA operations : By early to mid-2016, IRA operations included supporting the Trump Campaign and disparaging candidate Hillary Clinton.

on IRA operations : Many IRA operations used Facebook accounts created and operated by its specialists.

on IRA operators : For example, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ directions to IRA operators ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ “Main idea: Use any opportunity to criticize Hillary [ Clinton ] and the rest (except Sanders and Trump - we support them)."

on IRA Political Materials : a. Trump Campaign Promotion of IRA Political Materials

on IRA social media accounts : Individual IRA social media accounts attracted hundreds of thousands of followers.

on IRA specialists : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on IRA tweets : Multiple individuals affiliated with the Trump Campaign also promoted IRA tweets (discussed below).

on IRA’s contacts : The IRA’s contacts included requests for signs and other materials to use at rallies, as well as requests to promote the rallies and help coordinate logistics.

on IRA’s interference operation. : The investigation did not identify evidence that any U.S. persons knowingly or intentionally coordinated with the IRA’s interference operation.

on IRA’s management: : Two individuals headed the IRA’s management: its general director, Mikhail Bystrov, and its executive director, Mikhail Burchik.

on IRA’s online audience : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ as the IRA’s online audience became larger, the IRA tracked U.S. persons with whom they communicated and had successfully tasked (with tasks ranging from organizing rallies to taking pictures with certain political messages).

on IRA’s operation : The campaign evolved from a generalized program designed in 2014 and 2015 to undermine the U.S. electoral system, to a targeted operation that by early 2016 favored candidate Trump and disparaged candidate Clinton, The IRA’s operation also included the purchase of political advertisements on social media in the names of U.S. persons and entities, as well as the staging of political rallies inside the United States.

on IRA’s social media accounts. : After the event, the IRA posted videos and photographs of the event to the IRA’s social media accounts.

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on IRA’s social media accounts : Collectively, the IRA’s social media accounts reached tens of millions of U.S. persons.

on IRA’S social media accounts : Many of the same IRA employees who oversaw the IRA’S social media accounts also conducted the day-to-day recruiting for political rallies inside the United States.

on IRA’s U.S. operations, : IRA employees were aware that Prigozhin was involved in the IRA’s U.S. operations, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ In May 2016, IRA employees, claiming to be U.S. social activists and administrators of Facebook groups, recruited U.S. persons to hold signs (including one in front of the White House) that read “Happy 55th Birthday Dear Boss,” as an homage to Prigozhin (whose 55th birthday was on June 1, 2016).

on IRA’s U.S. operations : The IRA’s U.S. operations are part of a larger set of interlocking operations known as “Project Lakhta.”

on IRA’s U.S. operations : C. The IRA Targets U.S. Elections 1. The IRA Ramps Up U.S. Operations As Early As 2014 The IRA’s U.S. operations sought to influence public opinion through online media and forums.

on IRA’s U.S. operations : Starting as early as 2014, the IRA’s U.S. operations included social media specialists focusing on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter.

on IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group : For example, at the time they were deactivated by Facebook in mid-2017, the IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group had over 300,000 followers, the “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group had over 250,000 followers, the “Being Patriotic” Facebook group had over 200,000 followers, and the “Secured Borders” Facebook group had over 130,000 followers.

on Israeli government : from a bank whose CEO was then seeking a position in the Trump Administration); allegations that Papadopoulos committed a crime or crimes by acting as an unregistered agent of the Israeli government; and four sets of allegations involving Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor to President Trump.

on Kushner, : On June 9, 2016, for example, a Russian lawyer met with senior Trump Campaign officials Donald Trump Jr., Jared Kushner, and campaign chairman Paul Manafort to deliver what the email proposing the meeting had described as “official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary.”

on Kushner : During the same period, another business associate introduced Dmitriev to a friend of Jared Kushner who had not served on the Campaign or the Transition Team.

on Kushner : The friend gave that proposal to Kushner before the inauguration, and Kushner later gave copies to Bannon and incoming Secretary of State Rex Tillerson.

on Kushner : The friend gave that proposal to Kushner before the inauguration, and Kushner later gave copies to Bannon and incoming Secretary of State Rex Tillerson.

on Kushner’s friend : Dmitriev and Kushner’s friend collaborated on a short written reconciliation plan for the United States and Russia, which Dmitriev implied had been cleared through Putin.

on Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Army : The Russian intelligence service known as the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Army ( GRU ) carried out these operations.

on Manafort, : It then confirmed that the Special Counsel had been authorized since his appointment to investigate allegations that three Trump Campaign officials — Carter Page, Paul Manafort, and George Papadopoulos"committed a crime or crimes by colluding with Russian government officials with respect to the Russian government’s efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.”

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on Manafort, : Two district courts confirmed the breadth of the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate Russia election interference and links and/or coordination with the Trump Campaign. See United States v. Manafort, 312 F. Supp. 3d 60, 79-83 (D.D.C. 2018); United States v. Manafort, 321 F. Supp. 3d 640, 650-655 (E.D. Va. 2018).

on Manafort, : Two district courts confirmed the breadth of the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate Russia election interference and links and/or coordination with the Trump Campaign. See United States v. Manafort, 312 F. Supp. 3d 60, 79-83 (D.D.C. 2018); United States v. Manafort, 321 F. Supp. 3d 640, 650-655 (E.D. Va. 2018).

on Manafort. : Third, the memorandum memorialized the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate individuals and entities who were possibly engaged in “jointly undertaken activity” with existing subjects of the investigation, including Paul Manafort.

on Manafort : On June 9, 2016, for example, a Russian lawyer met with senior Trump Campaign officials Donald Trump Jr., Jared Kushner, and campaign chairman Paul Manafort to deliver what the email proposing the meeting had described as “official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary.”

on Manafort : Kilimnik requested the meeting to deliver in person a peace plan for Ukraine that Manafort acknowledged to the Special Counsel’s Office was a “backdoor” way for Russia to control part of eastern Ukraine; both men believed the plan would require candidate Trump’s assent to succeed (were he to be elected President).

on Manafort : Separately, on August 2, 2016, Trump Campaign chairman Paul Manafort met in New York City with his long-time business associate Konstantin Kilimnik, who the FBI assesses to have ties to Russian intelligence.

on Manafort : Months before that meeting, Manafort had caused internal polling data to be shared with Kilimnik, and the sharing continued for some period of time after their August meeting.

on Manafort : Manafort lied to the Office and the grand jury concerning his interactions and communications with Konstantin Kilimnik about Trump Campaign polling data and a peace plan for Ukraine.

on Manafort : The memorandum also confirmed the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate certain other matters, including two additional sets of allegations involving Manafort (crimes arising from payments he received from the Ukrainian government and crimes arising from his receipt of loans

on Manafort’s : Trump Campaign and Manafort’s strategy for winning Democratic votes in Midwestern states.

on Moscow : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

on Moscow project. : Former Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to making false statements to Congress about the Trump Moscow project.

on Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties : During its investigation the Office issued more than 2,800 subpoenas under the auspices of a grand jury sitting in the District of Columbia; executed nearly 500 search-and-seizure warrants; obtained more than 230 orders for communications records under 18 U.S.C. § 2703(d); obtained almost 50 orders authorizing use of pen registers; made 13 requests to foreign governments pursuant to Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties; and interviewed approximately 500 witnesses, including almost 80 before a grand jury.

on Papadopoulos, : George Papadopoulos, a foreign policy advisor during the campaign period, pleaded guilty to lying to investigators about, inter alia, the nature and timing of his interactions with Joseph Mifsud, the professor who told Papadopoulos that the Russians had dirt on candidate Clinton in the form of thousands of emails.

on Papadopoulos. : In late July 2016, soon after WikiLeaks’s first release of stolen documents, a foreign government contacted the FBI about a May 2016 encounter with Trump Campaign foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos.

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on Papadopoulos : Papadopoulos had suggested to a representative of that foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Papadopoulos : Immediately upon his return to London from that trip, Mifsud told Papadopoulos that the Russian government had “dirt” on Hillary Clinton in the form of thousands

on Papadopoulos : Spring 2016. Campaign foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos made early contact with Joseph Mifsud, a London-based professor who had connections to Russia and traveled to Moscow in April 2016.

on Papadopoulos : One week later, in the first week of May 2016, Papadopoulos suggested to a representative of a foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on Papadopoulos : Throughout that period of time and for several months thereafter, Papadopoulos worked with Mifsud and two Russian nationals to arrange a meeting between the Campaign and the Russian government.

on Papadopoulos : And within a week of the release, a foreign government informed the FBI about its May 2016 interaction with Papadopoulos and his statement that the Russian government could assist the Trump Campaign.

on Papadopoulos : George Papadopoulos, a foreign policy advisor during the campaign period, pleaded guilty to lying to investigators about, inter alia, the nature and timing of his interactions with Joseph Mifsud, the professor who told Papadopoulos that the Russians had dirt on candidate Clinton in the form of thousands of emails.

on Papadopoulos : It then confirmed that the Special Counsel had been authorized since his appointment to investigate allegations that three Trump Campaign officials — Carter Page, Paul Manafort, and George Papadopoulos"committed a crime or crimes by colluding with Russian government officials with respect to the Russian government’s efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.”

on Papadopoulos : from a bank whose CEO was then seeking a position in the Trump Administration); allegations that Papadopoulos committed a crime or crimes by acting as an unregistered agent of the Israeli government; and four sets of allegations involving Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor to President Trump.

on Peskov. : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

on Prigozhin, : As explained further in Volume I, Section V.A, infra, the Office concluded (and a grand jury has alleged) that Prigozhin, his companies, and IRA employees violated U.S. law through these operations, principally by undermining through deceptive acts the work of federal agencies charged with regulating foreign influence in U.S. elections.

on Prigozhin : Prigozhin is widely reported to have ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin,

on Prigozhin : The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Yevgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled.

on Prigozhin : The first form of Russian election influence came principally from the Internet Research Agency, LLC ( IRA ), a Russian organization funded by Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and companies he controlled, including Concord Management and Consulting LLC and Concord Catering (collectively “Concord”).

on Prigozhin : Prigozhin is a wealthy Russian businessman who served as the head of Concord.

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on Prigozhin : B. Funding and Oversight from Concord and Prigozhin Until at least February 2018, Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and two Concord companies funded the IRA.

on Prigozhin : B. Funding and Oversight from Concord and Prigozhin Until at least February 2018, Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin and two Concord companies funded the IRA.

on Prigozhin : Prigozhin was sanctioned by the U.S. Treasury Department in December2016

on Prigozhin : IRA employees were aware that Prigozhin was involved in the IRA’s U.S. operations, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ In May 2016, IRA employees, claiming to be U.S. social activists and administrators of Facebook groups, recruited U.S. persons to hold signs (including one in front of the White House) that read “Happy 55th Birthday Dear Boss,” as an homage to Prigozhin (whose 55th birthday was on June 1, 2016).

on Prigozhin : IRA employees were aware that Prigozhin was involved in the IRA’s U.S. operations, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ In May 2016, IRA employees, claiming to be U.S. social activists and administrators of Facebook groups, recruited U.S. persons to hold signs (including one in front of the White House) that read “Happy 55th Birthday Dear Boss,” as an homage to Prigozhin (whose 55th birthday was on June 1, 2016).

on Prigozhin : In sum, the investigation established that Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election through the “active measures” social media campaign carried out by the IRA, an organization funded by Prigozhin and companies that he controlled.

on Prigozhin’s ties : Numerous media sources have reported on Prigozhin’s ties to Putin, and the two have appeared together in public photographs.

on pro-Trump : For example, on May 31, 2016, the operational account “Matt Skiber” began to privately message dozens of pro-Trump Facebook groups asking them to help plan a “pro-Trump rally near Trump Tower."

on pro-Trump : First, on multiple occasions, members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign promoted — typically by linking, retweeting, or similar methods of reposting — pro-Trump or anti-Clinton content published by the IRA through IRA-controlled social media accounts.

on pro-Trump : Starting in June 2016, the IRA contacted different U.S. persons affiliated with the Trump Campaign in an effort to coordinate pro-Trump IRA-organized rallies inside the United States.

on pro-Trump rallies : pro-Trump rallies included three in New York; a series of pro-Trump rallies in Florida in August 2016; and a series of pro-Trump rallies in October 2016 in Pennsylvania.

on Pro-Trump rallies : Pro-Trump rallies included three in New York; a series of pro-Trump rallies in Florida in August 2016; and a series of Pro-Trump rallies in October 2016 in Pennsylvania.

on Putin, : Prigozhin is widely reported to have ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin,

on Putin, : Numerous media sources have reported on Prigozhin’s ties to Putin, and the two have appeared together in public photographs.

on Putin. : The Russian Embassy made contact hours after the election to congratulate the President-Elect and to arrange a call with President Putin.

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on Putin. : Dmitriev and Kushner’s friend collaborated on a short written reconciliation plan for the United States and Russia, which Dmitriev implied had been cleared through Putin.

on Putin : The Russian contacts consisted of business connections, offers of assistance to the Campaign, invitations for candidate Trump and Putin to meet in person, invitations for Campaign officials and representatives of the Russian government to meet, and policy positions seeking improved U.S.-Russian relations.

on Putin : Hours later, President-Elect Trump tweeted, “Great move on delay (by V. Putin ).”

on Putin : The following day, Putin announced that Russia would not take retaliatory measures in response to the sanctions at that time.

on Russia. : And the investigation did not establish that one Campaign official’s efforts to dilute a portion of the Republican Party platform on providing assistance to Ukraine were undertaken at the behest of candidate Trump or Russia.

on Russia : 2015. Some of the earliest contacts were made in connection with a Trump Organization real-estate project in Russia known as Trump Tower Moscow.

on Russia : The Trump Organization pursued the project through at least June 2016, including by considering travel to Russia by Cohen and candidate Trump.

on Russia : The materials were offered to Trump Jr. as “part of Russia and its government’s support for Mr. Trump.”

on Russia : Kilimnik requested the meeting to deliver in person a peace plan for Ukraine that Manafort acknowledged to the Special Counsel’s Office was a “backdoor” way for Russia to control part of eastern Ukraine; both men believed the plan would require candidate Trump’s assent to succeed (were he to be elected President).

on Russian efforts, : electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Russian government. : RUSSIAN CONTACTS WITH THE CAMPAIGN The social media campaign and the GRU hacking operations coincided with a series of contacts between Trump Campaign officials and individuals with ties to the Russian government.

on Russian government. : Throughout that period of time and for several months thereafter, Papadopoulos worked with Mifsud and two Russian nationals to arrange a meeting between the Campaign and the Russian government.

on Russian government : Releases of hacked materials—hacks that public reporting soon attributed to the Russian government -- began that same month.

on Russian government : The Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election in sweeping and systematic fashion.

on Russian government : That information prompted the FBI on July 31, 2016, to open an investigation into whether individuals associated with the Trump Campaign were coordinating with the Russian government in its interference activities.

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on Russian government : Papadopoulos had suggested to a representative of that foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Russian government : That fall, two federal agencies jointly announced that the Russian government “directed recent compromises of e-mails from US persons and institutions, including US political organizations,” and, “[t]hese thefts and disclosures are intended to interfere with the US election process.”

on Russian government : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit

on Russian government : The investigation also identified numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump Campaign.

on Russian government : electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Russian government : We applied the term coordination in that sense when stating in the report that the investigation did not establish that the Trump Campaign coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Russian government : We understood coordination to require an agreement — tacit or express — between the Trump Campaign and the Russian government on election interference.

on Russian government : At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign.

on Russian government : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Russian government : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Russian government : The Russian contacts consisted of business connections, offers of assistance to the Campaign, invitations for candidate Trump and Putin to meet in person, invitations for Campaign officials and representatives of the Russian government to meet, and policy positions seeking improved U.S.-Russian relations.

on Russian government : Immediately upon his return to London from that trip, Mifsud told Papadopoulos that the Russian government had “dirt” on Hillary Clinton in the form of thousands

on Russian government : One week later, in the first week of May 2016, Papadopoulos suggested to a representative of a foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on Russian government : And within a week of the release, a foreign government informed the FBI about its May 2016 interaction with Papadopoulos and his statement that the Russian government could assist the Trump Campaign.

on Russian government : On July 31, 2016, based on the foreign government reporting, the FBI opened an investigation into potential coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

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on Russian government : Within days, there was public reporting that U.S. intelligence agencies had “high confidence” that the Russian government was behind the theft of emails and documents from the DNC.

on Russian government : That same day, October 7, the Department of Homeland Security and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence issued a joint public statement “that the Russian government directed the recent compromises of e-mails from US persons and institutions, including from US political organizations.”

on Russian government : The most senior levels of the Russian government encouraged these efforts.

on Russian government : I have been authorized by the Department of Justice to confirm that the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election, and that includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump Campaign and the Russian government and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia’s efforts. ...

on Russian government : Among other things, the evidence was not sufficient to charge any Campaign official as an unregistered agent of the Russian government or other Russian principal.

on Russian government : Further, the evidence was not sufficient to charge that any member of the Trump Campaign conspired with representatives of the Russian government to interfere in the 2016 election.

on Russian government : Second, while the investigation identified numerous links between individuals with ties to the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign, the evidence was not sufficient to support criminal charges.

on Russian government : (i) any links and/or coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump; and

on Russian government : The Office has concluded its investigation into links and coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Russian government efforts : The FBI and other U.S. government institutions were at the time continuing their investigation of suspected Russian government efforts to interfere in the presidential election.

on Russian government hackers : Days after the June 9 meeting, on June 14, 2016, a cybersecurity firm and the DNC announced that Russian government hackers had infiltrated the DNC and obtained access to opposition research on candidate Trump, among other documents.

on Russian government officials : Post-2016 Election. Immediately after the November 8 election, Russian government officials and prominent Russian businessmen began trying to make inroads into the new administration.

on Russian government officials : It then confirmed that the Special Counsel had been authorized since his appointment to investigate allegations that three Trump Campaign officials — Carter Page, Paul Manafort, and George Papadopoulos"committed a crime or crimes by colluding with Russian government officials with respect to the Russian government’s efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.”

on Russian government operations : Evidence of Russian government operations began to surface in mid-2016.

on Russian government press secretary : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

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on Russian government’s efforts : The order appointing the Special Counsel authorized him to investigate “the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election,” including any links or coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Russian government’s efforts : I have been authorized by the Department of Justice to confirm that the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election, and that includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump Campaign and the Russian government and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia’s efforts. ...

on Russian government’s efforts : Relying on the authority vested” in the Acting Attorney General, “including 28 U.S.C. §§ 509, 510, and 515,” the Acting Attorney General ordered the appointment of a Special Counsel “in order to discharge [the Acting Attorney General’s] responsibility to provide supervision and management of the Department of Justice, and to ensure a full and thorough investigation of the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election.”

on Russian government’s efforts : It then confirmed that the Special Counsel had been authorized since his appointment to investigate allegations that three Trump Campaign officials — Carter Page, Paul Manafort, and George Papadopoulos"committed a crime or crimes by colluding with Russian government officials with respect to the Russian government’s efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.”

on Russian government’s efforts : First, as part of a full and thorough investigation of the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election,” the Special Counsel was authorized to investigate the pertinent activities of Michael Cohen, Richard Gates, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■, Roger Stone, and ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■” “Confirmation of the authorization to investigate such individuals,” the memorandum stressed, “does not suggest that the Special Counsel has made a determination that any of them has committed a crime.”

on Russian government’s role : Around the time that the DNC announced in mid-June 2016 the Russian government’s role in hacking its network, the GRU began disseminating stolen materials through the fictitious online personas “DCLeaks” and “Guccifer 2.0.”

on Sections II and III : Sections II and III describe the principal ways Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election.

on Section I : Section I describes the scope of the investigation.

on Section IV : Section IV describes links between the Russian

on Section V : Section V sets forth the Special Counsel’s charging decisions.

on Sessions : He told advisors that it was the end of his presidency, sought to have Attorney General Jefferson (Jeff) Sessions unrecuse from the Russia investigation and to have the Special Counsel removed, and engaged in efforts to curtail the Special Counsel’s investigation and prevent the disclosure of evidence to it, including through public and private contacts with potential witnesses.

on Sessions : The investigation also did not establish that a meeting between Kislyak and Sessions in September 2016 at Sessions’s Senate office included any more than a passing mention of the presidential campaign.

on Sessions : I. THE SPECIAL COUNSEL’S INVESTIGATION On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod J. Rosenstein — then serving as Acting Attorney General for the Russia investigation following the recusal of former Attorney General Jeff Sessions on March 2, 2016 — appointed the Special Counsel “to investigate Russian interference with the 2016 presidential election and related matters.”

on Sessions : Finally, the memorandum described an FBI investigation opened before the Special Counsel’s appointment into “allegations that [then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions ] made false statements to the United States Senate[,]” and confirmed the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate that matter.

on Sessions’s Senate office : The investigation also did not establish that a meeting between Kislyak and Sessions in September 2016 at Sessions’s Senate office included any more than a passing mention of the presidential campaign.

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on St. Petersburg, : The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Yevgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled.

on Tea Party : For example, on August 23, 2016, the IRA-controlled persona “Matt Skiber” Facebook account sent a message to a U.S. Tea Party activist, writing that “Mr. Trump posted about our event in Miami! This is great!"

on Trump, : Days after the June 9 meeting, on June 14, 2016, a cybersecurity firm and the DNC announced that Russian government hackers had infiltrated the DNC and obtained access to opposition research on candidate Trump, among other documents.

on Trump, : Trump, Kellyanne Conway, Brad Parscale, and Michael T. Flynn.

on Trump. : Around the same time, candidate Trump announced that he hoped Russia would recover emails described as missing from a private server used by Clinton when she was Secretary of State (he later said that he was speaking sarcastically). ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ WikiLeaks began releasing Podesta’s stolen emails on October 7, 2016, less than one hour after a U.S. media outlet released video considered damaging to candidate Trump.

on Trump. : The Trump Organization pursued the project through at least June 2016, including by considering travel to Russia by Cohen and candidate Trump.

on Trump. : from a bank whose CEO was then seeking a position in the Trump Administration); allegations that Papadopoulos committed a crime or crimes by acting as an unregistered agent of the Israeli government; and four sets of allegations involving Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor to President Trump.

on Trump.” : The materials were offered to Trump Jr. as “part of Russia and its government’s support for Mr. Trump.”

on Trump : First, a Russian entity carried out a social media campaign that favored presidential candidate Donald J. Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Trump : The campaign evolved from a generalized program designed in 2014 and 2015 to undermine the U.S. electoral system, to a targeted operation that by early 2016 favored candidate Trump and disparaged candidate Clinton, The IRA’s operation also included the purchase of political advertisements on social media in the names of U.S. persons and entities, as well as the staging of political rallies inside the United States.

on Trump : At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign.

on Trump : Around the same time, candidate Trump announced that he hoped Russia would recover emails described as missing from a private server used by Clinton when she was Secretary of State (he later said that he was speaking sarcastically). ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ WikiLeaks began releasing Podesta’s stolen emails on October 7, 2016, less than one hour after a U.S. media outlet released video considered damaging to candidate Trump.

on Trump : The Russian contacts consisted of business connections, offers of assistance to the Campaign, invitations for candidate Trump and Putin to meet in person, invitations for Campaign officials and representatives of the Russian government to meet, and policy positions seeking improved U.S.-Russian relations.

on Trump : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

on Trump : Summer 2016. Russian outreach to the Trump Campaign continued into the summer of 2016, as candidate Trump was becoming the presumptive Republican nominee for President.

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on Trump : Fall 2016. On October 7, 2016, the media released video of candidate Trump speaking in graphic terms about women years earlier, which was considered damaging to his candidacy.

on Trump : Hours later, President-Elect Trump tweeted, “Great move on delay (by V. Putin ).”

on Trump : On January 6, 2017, members of the intelligence community briefed President-Elect Trump on a joint assessment — drafted and coordinated among the Central Intelligence Agency, FBI, and

on Trump : The investigation continued under then-Director Comey for the next seven weeks until May 9, 2017, when President Trump fired Comey as FBI Director — an action which is analyzed in Volume II of the report.

on Trump : President Trump reacted negatively to the Special Counsel’s appointment.

on Trump : Former Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to making false statements to Congress about the Trump Moscow project.

on Trump : And the investigation did not establish that one Campaign official’s efforts to dilute a portion of the Republican Party platform on providing assistance to Ukraine were undertaken at the behest of candidate Trump or Russia.

on Trump : (i) any links and/or coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump; and

on Trump : For example, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ directions to IRA operators ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ “Main idea: Use any opportunity to criticize Hillary [ Clinton ] and the rest (except Sanders and Trump - we support them)."

on Trump : IRA-purchasedadvertisements referencing candidate Trump largely supported his campaign.

on Trump : For example, on August 23, 2016, the IRA-controlled persona “Matt Skiber” Facebook account sent a message to a U.S. Tea Party activist, writing that “Mr. Trump posted about our event in Miami! This is great!"

on Trump Administration) : from a bank whose CEO was then seeking a position in the Trump Administration); allegations that Papadopoulos committed a crime or crimes by acting as an unregistered agent of the Israeli government; and four sets of allegations involving Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor to President Trump.

on Trump Administration officials : IRA employees monitored the reaction of the Trump Campaign and, later, Trump Administration officials to their tweets.

on Trump advisor : In early December, a business associate steered Dmitriev to Erik Prince, a supporter of the Trump Campaign and an associate of senior Trump advisor Steve Bannon.

on Trump Campaign, : Second, while the investigation identified numerous links between individuals with ties to the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign, the evidence was not sufficient to support criminal charges.

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on Trump Campaign, : In subsequent months, the IRA purchased dozens of advertisements supporting the Trump Campaign, predominantly through the Facebook groups “Being Patriotic,” “Stop All Invaders,” and “Secured Borders.”

on Trump Campaign, : The Florida rallies drew the attention of the Trump Campaign, which posted about the Miami rally on candidate Trump’s Facebook account (as discussed below).

on Trump Campaign-deleted : Further, the Office learned that some of the individuals we interviewed or whose conduct we investigated — including some associated with the Trump Campaign-deleted relevant communications or communicated during the relevant period using applications that feature encryption or that do not provide for long-term retention of data or communications records.

on Trump Campaign. : The order appointing the Special Counsel authorized him to investigate “the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election,” including any links or coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : The investigation also identified numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : Volume I describes the factual results of the Special Counsel’s investigation of Russia’s interference in the 2016 presidential election and its interactions with the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : And within a week of the release, a foreign government informed the FBI about its May 2016 interaction with Papadopoulos and his statement that the Russian government could assist the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : On July 31, 2016, based on the foreign government reporting, the FBI opened an investigation into potential coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : The Office has concluded its investigation into links and coordination between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign. : Two district courts confirmed the breadth of the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate Russia election interference and links and/or coordination with the Trump Campaign. See United States v. Manafort, 312 F. Supp. 3d 60, 79-83 (D.D.C. 2018); United States v. Manafort, 321 F. Supp. 3d 640, 650-655 (E.D. Va. 2018).

on Trump Campaign. : The investigation identified two different forms of connections between the IRA and members of the Trump Campaign. (The investigation identified no similar connections between the IRA and the Clinton Campaign. )

on Trump Campaign. : Among the U.S. “leaders of public opinion” targeted by the IRA were various members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign.

on Trump Campaign : In late July 2016, soon after WikiLeaks’s first release of stolen documents, a foreign government contacted the FBI about a May 2016 encounter with Trump Campaign foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos.

on Trump Campaign : That information prompted the FBI on July 31, 2016, to open an investigation into whether individuals associated with the Trump Campaign were coordinating with the Russian government in its interference activities.

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on Trump Campaign : Papadopoulos had suggested to a representative of that foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Trump Campaign : electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Trump Campaign : In connection with that analysis, we addressed the factual question whether members of the Trump Campaign “coordinat[ed]” — a term that appears in the appointment order — with Russian election interference activities.

on Trump Campaign : We applied the term coordination in that sense when stating in the report that the investigation did not establish that the Trump Campaign coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Trump Campaign : We understood coordination to require an agreement — tacit or express — between the Trump Campaign and the Russian government on election interference.

on Trump Campaign : To organize those rallies, IRA employees posed as U.S. grassroots entities and persons and made contact with Trump supporters and Trump Campaign officials in the United States.

on Trump Campaign : Section III of this Report details the Office’s investigation into the Russian hacking operations, as well as other efforts by Trump Campaign supporters to obtain Clinton-related emails.

on Trump Campaign : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Trump Campaign : RUSSIAN CONTACTS WITH THE CAMPAIGN The social media campaign and the GRU hacking operations coincided with a series of contacts between Trump Campaign officials and individuals with ties to the Russian government.

on Trump Campaign : Section IV of this Report details the contacts between Russia and the Trump Campaign during the campaign and transition periods, the most salient of which are summarized below in chronological order.

on Trump Campaign : One week later, in the first week of May 2016, Papadopoulos suggested to a representative of a foreign government that the Trump Campaign had received indications from the Russian government that it could assist the Campaign through the anonymous release of information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on Trump Campaign : On June 9, 2016, for example, a Russian lawyer met with senior Trump Campaign officials Donald Trump Jr., Jared Kushner, and campaign chairman Paul Manafort to deliver what the email proposing the meeting had described as “official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary.”

on Trump Campaign : Summer 2016. Russian outreach to the Trump Campaign continued into the summer of 2016, as candidate Trump was becoming the presumptive Republican nominee for President.

on Trump Campaign : Separately, on August 2, 2016, Trump Campaign chairman Paul Manafort met in New York City with his long-time business associate Konstantin Kilimnik, who the FBI assesses to have ties to Russian intelligence.

on Trump Campaign : Trump Campaign and Manafort’s strategy for winning Democratic votes in Midwestern states.

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on Trump Campaign : In early December, a business associate steered Dmitriev to Erik Prince, a supporter of the Trump Campaign and an associate of senior Trump advisor Steve Bannon.

on Trump Campaign : I have been authorized by the Department of Justice to confirm that the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election, and that includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump Campaign and the Russian government and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia’s efforts. ...

on Trump Campaign : Further, the evidence was not sufficient to charge that any member of the Trump Campaign conspired with representatives of the Russian government to interfere in the 2016 election.

on Trump Campaign : Third, the investigation established that several individuals affiliated with the Trump Campaign lied to the Office, and to Congress, about their interactions with Russian-affiliated individuals and related matters.

on Trump Campaign : Manafort lied to the Office and the grand jury concerning his interactions and communications with Konstantin Kilimnik about Trump Campaign polling data and a peace plan for Ukraine.

on Trump Campaign : For example, the investigation established that interactions between Russian Ambassador Kislyak and Trump Campaign officials both at the candidate’s April 2016 foreign policy speech in Washington, D.C., and during the week of the Republican National Convention were brief, public, and non-substantive.

on Trump Campaign : It then confirmed that the Special Counsel had been authorized since his appointment to investigate allegations that three Trump Campaign officials — Carter Page, Paul Manafort, and George Papadopoulos"committed a crime or crimes by colluding with Russian government officials with respect to the Russian government’s efforts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.”

on Trump Campaign : The Special Counsel’s Office exercised its judgment regarding what to investigate and did not, for instance, investigate every public report of a contact between the Trump Campaign and Russian-affiliated individuals and entities.

on Trump Campaign : By early to mid-2016, IRA operations included supporting the Trump Campaign and disparaging candidate Hillary Clinton.

on Trump Campaign : Some IRA employees, posing as U.S. persons and without revealing their Russian association, communicated electronically with individuals associated with the Trump Campaign and with other political activists to seek to coordinate political activities, including the staging of political rallies.

on Trump Campaign : By February 2016, internal IRA documents referred to support for the Trump Campaign and opposition to candidate Clinton. 49

on Trump Campaign : Throughout 2016, IRA accounts published an increasing number of materials supporting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on Trump Campaign : The first known IRA advertisement explicitly endorsing the Trump Campaign was purchased on April 19, 2016.

on Trump Campaign : In May 2016, the IRA created the Twitter account @march for trump, which promoted IRA-organized rallies in support of the Trump Campaign (described below).

on Trump Campaign : Multiple individuals affiliated with the Trump Campaign also promoted IRA tweets (discussed below).

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on Trump Campaign : From June 2016 until the end of the presidential campaign, almost all of the U.S. rallies organized by the IRA focused on the U.S. election, often promoting the Trump Campaign and opposing the Clinton Campaign.

on Trump Campaign : 7. Interactions and Contacts with the Trump Campaign

on Trump Campaign : Additionally, in a few instances, IRA employees represented themselves as U.S. persons to communicate with members of the Trump Campaign in an effort to seek assistance and coordination on IRA-organized political rallies inside the United States.

on Trump Campaign : First, on multiple occasions, members and surrogates of the Trump Campaign promoted — typically by linking, retweeting, or similar methods of reposting — pro-Trump or anti-Clinton content published by the IRA through IRA-controlled social media accounts.

on Trump Campaign : a. Trump Campaign Promotion of IRA Political Materials

on Trump Campaign : In total, Trump Campaign affiliates promoted dozens of tweets, posts, and other political content created by the IRA.

on Trump Campaign : – Posts from the IRA-controlled Twitter account @TEN GOP were cited or retweeted by multiple Trump Campaign officials and surrogates, including Donald J. Trump Jr., Eric

on Trump Campaign : IRA employees monitored the reaction of the Trump Campaign and, later, Trump Administration officials to their tweets.

on Trump Campaign : b. Contact with Trump Campaign Officials in Connection to Rallies

on Trump Campaign : Starting in June 2016, the IRA contacted different U.S. persons affiliated with the Trump Campaign in an effort to coordinate pro-Trump IRA-organized rallies inside the United States.

on Trump Campaign : While certain campaign volunteers agreed to provide the requested support (for example, agreeing to set aside a number of signs), the investigation has not identified evidence that any Trump Campaign official understood the requests were coming from foreign nationals.

on Trump Jr., : On June 9, 2016, for example, a Russian lawyer met with senior Trump Campaign officials Donald Trump Jr., Jared Kushner, and campaign chairman Paul Manafort to deliver what the email proposing the meeting had described as “official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary.”

on Trump Jr., : – Posts from the IRA-controlled Twitter account @TEN GOP were cited or retweeted by multiple Trump Campaign officials and surrogates, including Donald J. Trump Jr., Eric

on Trump Jr. : The materials were offered to Trump Jr. as “part of Russia and its government’s support for Mr. Trump.”

on Trump Jr. : A November 7, 2016 post from the IRA-controlled Twitter account @Pamela Moorel3 was retweeted by Donald J. Trump Jr.

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on Trump mask). : The IRA also recruited moderators of conservative social media groups to promote IRA-generated content, as well as recruited individuals to perform political acts (such as walking around New York City dressed up as Santa Claus with a Trump mask).

on Trump Organization : 2015. Some of the earliest contacts were made in connection with a Trump Organization real-estate project in Russia known as Trump Tower Moscow.

on Trump Organization : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

on Trump Organization : The Trump Organization pursued the project through at least June 2016, including by considering travel to Russia by Cohen and candidate Trump.

on Trump Organization attorney : Former Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to making false statements to Congress about the Trump Moscow project.

on Trump presidency : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit

on Trump presidency : Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.

on Trump supporter : Individualized accounts used to influence the U.S. presidential election included @TEN GOP (described above); @jenn abrams (claiming to be a Virginian Trump supporter with 70,000 followers); @Pamela Moore13 (claiming to be a Texan Trump supporter with 70,000 followers); and @America 1st (an anti-immigration persona with 24,000 followers).

on Trump supporter : Individualized accounts used to influence the U.S. presidential election included @TEN GOP (described above); @jenn abrams (claiming to be a Virginian Trump supporter with 70,000 followers); @Pamela Moore13 (claiming to be a Texan Trump supporter with 70,000 followers); and @America 1st (an anti-immigration persona with 24,000 followers).

on Trump supporters : To organize those rallies, IRA employees posed as U.S. grassroots entities and persons and made contact with Trump supporters and Trump Campaign officials in the United States.

on Trump supporters” : The IRA bought an advertisement for its Instagram account “Tea Party News” asking U.S. persons to help them “make a patriotic team of young Trump supporters” by uploading photos with the hashtag “#KIDS4TRUMP.”

on Trump Tower. : For example, on May 31, 2016, the operational account “Matt Skiber” began to privately message dozens of pro-Trump Facebook groups asking them to help plan a “pro-Trump rally near Trump Tower."

on Trump Tower : Candidate Trump signed a Letter of Intent for Trump Tower Moscow by November 2015, and in January 2016 Trump Organization executive Michael Cohen emailed and spoke about the project with the office of Russian government press secretary Dmitry Peskov.

on Trump Tower Moscow. : 2015. Some of the earliest contacts were made in connection with a Trump Organization real-estate project in Russia known as Trump Tower Moscow.

on Trump’s assent : Kilimnik requested the meeting to deliver in person a peace plan for Ukraine that Manafort acknowledged to the Special Counsel’s Office was a “backdoor” way for Russia to control part of eastern Ukraine; both men believed the plan would require candidate Trump’s assent to succeed (were he to be elected President).

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on Trump’s candidacy : National Security Agency — that concluded with high confidence that Russia had intervened in the election through a variety of means to assist Trump’s candidacy and harm Clinton’s.

on Trump’s electoral prospects, : The written communications setting up the meeting showed that the Campaign anticipated receiving information from Russia that could assist candidate Trump’s electoral prospects, but the Russian lawyer’s presentation did not provide such information.

on Trump’s Facebook account : The Florida rallies drew the attention of the Trump Campaign, which posted about the Miami rally on candidate Trump’s Facebook account (as discussed below).

on Trump’s personal account : On September 19, 2017, President Trump’s personal account @realDonaldTrump responded to a tweet from the IRA-controlled account @10 gop (the backup account of @TEN GOP, which had already been deactivated by Twitter).

on Twitter). : On September 19, 2017, President Trump’s personal account @realDonaldTrump responded to a tweet from the IRA-controlled account @10 gop (the backup account of @TEN GOP, which had already been deactivated by Twitter).

on Twitter, : According to Twitter, in the ten weeks before the 2016 U.S. presidential election, these accounts posted approximately 175,993 tweets, approximately 8.4% of which were election-

on Twitter, : IRA employees frequently used ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to contact and recruit U.S. persons who followed the group.

on Twitter. : Starting as early as 2014, the IRA’s U.S. operations included social media specialists focusing on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter.

on Twitter. : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on Twitter : In January 2018, Twitter announced that it had identified 3,814 IRA-controlled Twitter accounts and notified approximately 1.4 million people Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on Twitter : In January 2018, Twitter announced that it had identified 3,814 IRA-controlled Twitter accounts and notified approximately 1.4 million people Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on Twitter : 4. U.S. Operations Through Twitter

on Twitter : In January 2018, Twitter publicly identified 3,814 Twitter accounts associated with the IRA.

on Twitter : Twitter also announced that it had notified approximately 1.4 million people who Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on Twitter account, : For example, one IRA-controlled Twitter account, @TEN GOP, purported to be connected to the Tennessee Republican Party.

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on Twitter account : In May 2016, the IRA created the Twitter account @march for trump, which promoted IRA-organized rallies in support of the Trump Campaign (described below).

on Twitter account : – Posts from the IRA-controlled Twitter account @TEN GOP were cited or retweeted by multiple Trump Campaign officials and surrogates, including Donald J. Trump Jr., Eric

on Twitter account : A November 7, 2016 post from the IRA-controlled Twitter account @Pamela Moorel3 was retweeted by Donald J. Trump Jr.

on Twitter accounts, : First, the IRA used one of its preexisting social media personas ( Facebook groups and Twitter accounts, for example) to announce and promote the event.

on Twitter accounts : In January 2018, Twitter announced that it had identified 3,814 IRA-controlled Twitter accounts and notified approximately 1.4 million people Twitter believed may have been in contact with an IRA-controlled account.

on Twitter accounts : IRA-controlled Twitter accounts separately had tens of thousands of followers, including multiple U.S. political figures who retweeted IRA-created content.

on Twitter accounts : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on Twitter accounts : First, IRA specialists operated certain Twitter accounts to create individual U.S. personas, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ Separately, the IRA operated a network of automated Twitter accounts (commonly referred to as a bot network ) that enabled the IRA to amplify existing content on Twitter.

on Twitter accounts : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ The IRA operated individualized Twitter accounts similar to the operation of its Facebook accounts, by continuously posting original content to the accounts while also communicating with U.S. Twitter users directly (through public tweeting or Twitter’s private messaging ).

on Twitter operations : The IRA’s Twitter operations involved two strategies.

on Twitter specialists. : A number of IRA employees assigned to the Translator Department served as Twitter specialists.

on Twitter users : ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ The IRA operated individualized Twitter accounts similar to the operation of its Facebook accounts, by continuously posting original content to the accounts while also communicating with U.S. Twitter users directly (through public tweeting or Twitter’s private messaging ).

on U.S. government institutions : The FBI and other U.S. government institutions were at the time continuing their investigation of suspected Russian government efforts to interfere in the presidential election.

on Ukraine : Kilimnik requested the meeting to deliver in person a peace plan for Ukraine that Manafort acknowledged to the Special Counsel’s Office was a “backdoor” way for Russia to control part of eastern Ukraine; both men believed the plan would require candidate Trump’s assent to succeed (were he to be elected President).

on Ukrainian government : The memorandum also confirmed the Special Counsel’s authority to investigate certain other matters, including two additional sets of allegations involving Manafort (crimes arising from payments he received from the Ukrainian government and crimes arising from his receipt of loans

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on Volume I : Volume I describes the factual results of the Special Counsel’s investigation of Russia’s interference in the 2016 presidential election and its interactions with the Trump Campaign.

on Volume II : Volume II addresses the President’s actions towards the FBI’s investigation into Russia’s interference in the 2016 presidential election and related matters, and his actions towards the Special Counsel’s investigation.

on White House : For example, on March 18, 2016, the IRA purchased an advertisement depicting candidate Clinton and a caption that read in part, “If one day God lets this liar enter the White House as a president — that day would be a real national tragedy.

on WikiLeaks, : Additional releases followed in July through the organization WikiLeaks, with further releases in October and November.

on WikiLeaks, : Those “thefts” and the “disclosures” of the hacked materials through online platforms such as WikiLeaks, the statement continued, “are intended to interfere with the US election process.”

on WikiLeaks. : The GRU later released additional materials through the organization WikiLeaks.

on WikiLeaks : Around the same time, candidate Trump announced that he hoped Russia would recover emails described as missing from a private server used by Clinton when she was Secretary of State (he later said that he was speaking sarcastically). ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ WikiLeaks began releasing Podesta’s stolen emails on October 7, 2016, less than one hour after a U.S. media outlet released video considered damaging to candidate Trump.

on WikiLeaks : Beginning in June 2016, ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ forecast to senior Campaign officials that WikiLeaks would release information damaging to candidate Clinton.

on WikiLeaks : July 2016 was also the month WikiLeaks first released emails stolen by the GRU from the DNC.

on WikiLeaks : On July 22, 2016, WikiLeaks posted thousands of internal DNC documents revealing information about the Clinton Campaign.

on WikiLeaks : Less than an hour later, WikiLeaks made its second release: thousands of John Podesta’s emails that had been stolen by the GRU in late March 2016.

on WikiLeaks’s : In late July 2016, soon after WikiLeaks’s first release of stolen documents, a foreign government contacted the FBI about a May 2016 encounter with Trump Campaign foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos.

on WikiLeaks’s : WikiLeaks’s first release came in July 2016.

on WikiLeaks’s : The presidential campaign of Donald J. Trump (“Trump Campaign” or “Campaign") showed interest in WikiLeaks’s releases of documents and welcomed their potential to damage candidate Clinton.

on WikiLeaks’s : And our evidence about the June 9, 2016 meeting and WikiLeaks’s releases of hacked materials was not sufficient to charge a criminal campaign-finance violation.

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on “Being Patriotic” Facebook group : For example, at the time they were deactivated by Facebook in mid-2017, the IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group had over 300,000 followers, the “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group had over 250,000 followers, the “Being Patriotic” Facebook group had over 200,000 followers, and the “Secured Borders” Facebook group had over 130,000 followers.

on “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group : For example, at the time they were deactivated by Facebook in mid-2017, the IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group had over 300,000 followers, the “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group had over 250,000 followers, the “Being Patriotic” Facebook group had over 200,000 followers, and the “Secured Borders” Facebook group had over 130,000 followers.

on “Secured Borders” Facebook group : For example, at the time they were deactivated by Facebook in mid-2017, the IRA’s “United Muslims of America” Facebook group had over 300,000 followers, the “Don’t Shoot Us” Facebook group had over 250,000 followers, the “Being Patriotic” Facebook group had over 200,000 followers, and the “Secured Borders” Facebook group had over 130,000 followers.


There are 472 entries in Mueller report of March 2019
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There are 472 entries in the Index to the Mueller report of March 2019

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Omar Khayyam Poem
poem by
Omar Khayyam (1048-1131)

Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse - and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness -
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.

Translated by Edward Fitzgerald (1859)
Full text of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
Rubaiyat is a collection of
quatrains -- poems with 4 lines --
and the rhyme scheme of AABA.
lyrok.com